Übersetzung für 'referendum' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "referendum" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "Unabhängigkeitsreferendum" – Englisch- Deutsch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Englisch- Übersetzungen.
The name and use of the 'referendum' is thought to have originated in the Swiss canton of Graubünden as early as the 16th century.
The term 'plebiscite' has a generally similar meaning in modern usage, and comes from the Latin plebiscita , which originally meant a decree of the Concilium Plebis Plebeian Council , the popular assembly of the Roman Republic.
Today, a referendum can also often be referred to as a plebiscite, but in some countries the two terms are used differently to refer to votes with differing types of legal consequences.
Plebiscite has also been used to denote a non-binding vote count such as the one held by Nazi Germany to 'approve' in retrospect the so-called Anschluss with Austria, the question being not 'Do you permit?
The term referendum covers a variety of different meanings. A referendum can be binding or advisory. Referendums can be further classified by who initiates them: From a political-philosophical perspective, referendums are an expression of direct democracy.
However, in the modern world, most referendums need to be understood within the context of representative democracy. Therefore, they tend to be used quite selectively, covering issues such as changes in voting systems, where currently elected officials may not have the legitimacy or inclination to implement such changes.
Since the end of the 18th century, hundreds of national referendums have been organised in the world;  almost national votes were held in Switzerland since its inauguration as a modern state in A referendum usually offers the electorate a choice of accepting or rejecting a proposal, but this is not necessarily the case.
In Switzerland , for example, multiple choice referendums are common. Among several other instances, two multiple choice referendums held in Sweden , in and in , offered voters three options; in , a referendum held in Australia to determine a new national anthem was held in which voters had four choices; in , New Zealand held a five-option referendum on their electoral system; and in , Guam had one on six options, with an additional blank option for anyone s wishing to campaign and vote for their own seventh option.
A multiple choice referendum poses the question of how the result is to be determined. If no single option receives the support of an absolute majority more than half of voters resort can be made to the two-round system or the alternative vote AV, which is also called IRV, PV, or STV.
Swiss referendums offer a separate vote on each of the multiple options as well as an additional decision about which of the multiple options should be preferred.
In the Swedish case, in both referendums the 'winning' option was chosen by the Single Member Plurality "first past the post" system.
In other words, the winning option was deemed to be that supported by a plurality , rather than an absolute majority, of voters. In the , Australian referendum, the winner was chosen by the system of preferential instant-runoff voting, IRV or PV.
Polls in Newfoundland and Guam , for example, were counted under a form of the two-round system , and an unusual form of TRS was used in the New Zealand poll.
Although California does not have deliberate multiple-choice referendums in the Swiss or Swedish sense in which only one of several counter-propositions can be victorious, and the losing proposals are wholly null and void , it does have so many yes-or-no referendums at each Election Day that the State's Constitution provides a method for resolving conflicts when two or more inconsistent propositions are passed on the same day.
This is a de facto form of approval voting —i. Another voting system that could be used in multiple-choice referendum is the Condorcet rule. Also, voters might be swayed by propaganda , strong personalities, intimidation, and expensive advertising campaigns.
James Madison argued that direct democracy is the " tyranny of the majority ". Some opposition to the referendum has arisen from its use by dictators such as Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini who, it is argued,  used the plebiscite to disguise oppressive policies as populism.
Dictators may also make use of referendums as well as show elections to further legitimize their authority such as Benito Mussolini in , Adolf Hitler in , Ferdinand Marcos in , Park Chung-hee in , and Francisco Franco in Hitler's use of plebiscites is argued [ by whom?
In recent years, referendums have been used strategically by several European governments trying to pursue political and electoral goals.
British politician Chris Patten summarized many of the arguments used by those who oppose the referendum in an interview in , when discussing the possibility of a referendum in the United Kingdom on the European Union Constitution:.
I think referendums are awful. The late and great Julian Critchley used to say that, not very surprisingly, they were the favourite form of plebiscitary democracy of Mussolini and Hitler.
What they ensure, as we saw in the last election, is that if you have a referendum on an issue, politicians during an election campaign say: I think referendums are fundamentally anti-democratic in our system, and I wouldn't have anything to do with them.
On the whole, governments only concede them when governments are weak. Some critics of the referendum attack the use of closed questions.
A difficulty which can plague a referendum of two issues or more is called the separability problem.
If one issue is in fact, or in perception, related to another on the ballot, the imposed simultaneous voting of first preference on each issue can result in an outcome that is displeasing to most.
The deadline to register to vote was initially midnight on 7 June ; however, this was extended by 48 hours owing to technical problems with the official registration website on 7 June, caused by unusually high web traffic.
Some supporters of the Leave campaign, including the Conservative MP Sir Gerald Howarth , criticised the government's decision to extend the deadline, alleging it gave Remain an advantage because many late registrants were young people who were considered to be more likely to vote for Remain.
Nottingham City Council emailed a Vote Leave supporter to say that the council was unable to check whether the nationality that people stated on their voting registration form was true, and hence that they simply had to assume that the information that was submitted was, indeed, correct.
Kingston-upon-Thames Council and the Electoral Commission stated that Jakub Pawlowski, a Polish voter in Kingston-upon-Thames declared himself as being British on his registration form, and hence, received a referendum polling card in the post, although he is not a UK citizen and did not have the right to receive such a polling card.
The voter stated that he specified that he was a Polish citizen when registering on the electoral roll,  but still had received the card in the post.
Xpress was initially unable to confirm the exact number of those affected. The matter was resolved by the issuance of a software patch which rendered the wrongly recorded electors ineligible to vote on 23 June.
Residents of the Crown Dependencies which are not part of the United Kingdom , namely the Isle of Man and the Bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey , even if they were British citizens, were excluded from the referendum unless they were also previous residents of the United Kingdom that is: England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.
Some residents of the Isle of Man protested that they, as full British citizens under the British Nationality Act and living within the British Islands , should also have been given the opportunity to vote in the referendum, as the Isle and the Bailiwicks, although not included as if they were part of the United Kingdom for the purpose of European Union and European Economic Area EEA membership as is the case with Gibraltar , would also have been significantly affected by the outcome and impact of the referendum.
Research by the Electoral Commission confirmed that its recommended question "was clear and straightforward for voters, and was the most neutral wording from the range of options As of October [update] , there was a cross-party, formal group campaigning for Britain to remain a member of the EU, called Britain Stronger in Europe , while there were two groups promoting British withdrawal from the EU which sought to be the official Leave campaign: EU also had an umbrella group offshoot,  the cross-party Grassroots Out.
Nevertheless, Cameron announced that Conservative Ministers and MPs were free to campaign in favour of remaining in the EU or leaving it, according to their conscience.
This decision came after mounting pressure for a free vote for ministers. HM Government distributed a leaflet to every household in England in the week commencing on 11 April, and in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland on 5 May after devolved elections.
It gave details on why the government's position was that the UK should remain in the EU. In the week beginning on 16 May, the Electoral Commission sent a voting guide regarding the referendum to every household within the UK and Gibraltar to raise awareness of the upcoming referendum.
The eight-page guide contained details on how to vote, as well as a sample of the actual ballot paper, and a whole page each was given to the campaign groups Britain Stronger in Europe and Vote Leave to present their case.
Those who favoured withdrawal from the European Union — commonly referred to as Brexit — argued that the EU has a democratic deficit and that being a member undermined national sovereignty , while those who favoured membership argued that in a world with many supranational organisations any loss of sovereignty was compensated by the benefits of EU membership.
The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is a body responsible for making decisions on policy and organising governmental departments ; it is chaired by the Prime Minister and contains most of the government's ministerial heads.
Various UK multinationals have stated that they would not like the UK to leave the EU because of the uncertainty it would cause, such as Shell ,  BT  and Vodafone ,  with some assessing the pros and cons of Britain exiting.
Many UK-based businesses, including Sainsbury's , remained steadfastly neutral, concerned that taking sides in the divisive issue could lead to a backlash from customers.
In the week following conclusion of the UK's renegotiation and especially after Boris Johnson announced that he would support the UK leaving , the pound fell to a seven-year low against the dollar and economists at HSBC warned that it could drop even more.
European banking analysts also cited Brexit concerns as the reason for the Euro's decline. Uncertainty over the referendum result, together with several other factors—US interest rates rising, low commodity prices, low Eurozone growth and concerns over emerging markets such as China—contributed to a high level of stock market volatility in January and February However, when the result for Sunderland was announced, it indicated an unexpected swing to 'Leave'.
It recovered to The Associated Press called the sudden worldwide stock market decline a stock market crash.
Marine Le Pen , the leader of the French Front national , described the possibility of a Brexit as "like the fall of the Berlin Wall " and commented that "Brexit would be marvellous — extraordinary — for all European peoples who long for freedom".
Again, we could be saved by the British. Swedish foreign minister Margot Wallström said on 11 June that if Britain left the EU, other countries would have referendums on whether to leave the EU, and that if Britain stayed in the EU, other countries would negotiate, ask and demand to have special treatment.
Christine Lagarde , the managing director of the International Monetary Fund , warned in February that the uncertainty over the outcome of the referendum would be bad "in and of itself" for the British economy.
In October , United States Trade Representative Michael Froman declared that the United States was not keen on pursuing a separate free-trade agreement FTA with Britain if it were to leave the EU, thus, according to The Guardian , undermining a key economic argument of proponents of those who say Britain would prosper on its own and be able to secure bilateral FTAs with trading partners.
We want to make sure that the United Kingdom continues to have that influence. Prior to the vote, Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump anticipated that Britain would leave based on its concerns over migration,  while Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton hoped that Britain would remain in the EU to strengthen transatlantic co-operation.
In October , Chinese President Xi Jinping declared his support for Britain remaining in the EU, saying "China hopes to see a prosperous Europe and a united EU, and hopes Britain, as an important member of the EU, can play an even more positive and constructive role in promoting the deepening development of China-EU ties".
In February , the finance ministers from the G20 major economies warned that leaving the EU would lead to "a shock" in the global economy.
In May , the Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull said that Australia would prefer the UK to remain in the EU, but that it was a matter for the British people, and "whatever judgment they make, the relations between Britain and Australia will be very, very close".
Indonesian president Joko Widodo stated during a European trip that he was not in favour of Brexit. Sri Lankan Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe issued a statement of reasons why he was "very concerned" at the possibility of Brexit.
Russian President Vladimir Putin said: We are not involved in this process in any way. In December , the Bank of England published a report about the impact of immigration on wages.
The report concluded that immigration put downward pressure on workers' wages, particularly low-skilled workers: From the German viewpoint, the existence of the liberal bloc allows Germany to play off free-market Britain against dirigiste France, and that if Britain were to leave, the liberal bloc would be severely weakened, thereby allowing the French to take the EU into a much more dirigiste direction that would be unattractive from the standpoint of Berlin.
World Pensions Forum director M. Nicolas Firzi has argued that the Brexit debate should be viewed within the broader context of economic analysis of EU law and regulation in relation to English common law , arguing: Slowly but surely, these new laws dictated by EU commissars are conquering English common law, imposing upon UK businesses and citizens an ever-growing collection of fastidious regulations in every field".
The head of the IFS, Paul Johnson said that the UK "could perfectly reasonably decide that we are willing to pay a bit of a price for leaving the EU and regaining some sovereignty and control over immigration and so on.
That there would be some price though, I think is now almost beyond doubt. During a Treasury Committee shortly following the vote, economic experts generally agreed that the leave vote would be detrimental to the UK economy.
Michael Dougan , Professor of European law and Jean Monnet Chair in EU Law at the University of Liverpool and a constitutional lawyer, described the Leave campaign as "one of the most dishonest political campaigns this country [the UK] has ever seen", for using arguments based on constitutional law that he said were readily demonstrable as false.
In particular, eight out of 10 respondents felt that leaving the EU would have a negative impact on trusts' ability to recruit health and social care staff.
Guidelines by the Charity Commission for England and Wales that forbid political activity for registered charities have kept them silent on the EU poll.
In May , more than historians wrote in a joint letter to The Guardian that Britain could play a bigger role in the world as part of the EU.
Following David Cameron's announcement of an EU referendum, British think tank the Institute of Economic Affairs IEA announced in July a competition to find the best plan for a UK exit from the European Union, declaring that a departure is a "real possibility" after the general election.
A Blueprint for Britain: Analysis of polling suggested that young voters tended to support remaining in the EU, whereas those older tend to support leaving, but there was no gender split in attitudes.
The number of jobs lost or gained by a withdrawal was a dominant issue; the BBC's outline of issues warned that a precise figure was difficult to find.
The Leave campaign argued that a reduction in red tape associated with EU regulations would create more jobs and that small to medium-sized companies who trade domestically would be the biggest beneficiaries.
Those arguing to remain in the EU, claimed that millions of jobs would be lost. The EU's importance as a trading partner and the outcome of its trade status if it left was a disputed issue.
Whilst those wanting to stay cited that most of the UK's trade was made with the EU, those arguing to leave say that its trade was not as important as it used to be.
Scenarios of the economic outlook for the country if it left the EU were generally negative. The United Kingdom also paid more into the EU budget than it received.
Citizens of EU countries, including the United Kingdom, have the right to travel, live and work within other EU countries, as free movement is one of the four founding principles of the EU.
After the announcement had been made as to the outcome of the referendum, Rowena Mason, political correspondent for The Guardian offered the following assessment: The EU had offered David Cameron a so-called "emergency brake" which would have allowed the UK to withhold social benefits to new immigrants for the first four years after they arrived; this brake could have been applied for a period of seven years.
The possibility that the UK's smaller constituent countries could vote to remain within the EU but find themselves withdrawn from the EU led to discussion about the risk to the unity of the United Kingdom.
The UK cannot possibly continue in its present form if England votes to leave and everyone else votes to stay". The scheduled debates and question sessions included a number of question and answer sessions with various campaigners.
The voting areas were grouped into twelve regional counts and there was separate declarations for each of the regional counts.
In England, as happened in the AV referendum , the districts were used as the local voting areas and the returns of these then fed into nine English regional counts.
In Scotland the local voting areas were the 32 local councils which then fed their results into the Scottish national count, and in Wales the 22 local councils were their local voting areas before the results were then fed into the Welsh national count.
Northern Ireland, as was the case in the AV referendum, was a single voting and national count area although local totals by Westminster parliamentary constituency areas were announced.
Gibraltar was a single voting area, but as Gibraltar was to be treated and included as if it were a part of South West England, its results was included together with the South West England regional count.
The following table shows the breakdown of the voting areas and regional counts that were used for the referendum.
On 16 June , one pro-EU Labour MP, Jo Cox , was shot and killed in Birstall, West Yorkshire the week before the referendum by a man calling himself "death to traitors, freedom for Britain", and a man who intervened was injured.
On polling day itself two polling stations in Kingston upon Thames were flooded by rain and had to be relocated.
Although this was widely dismissed as a conspiracy theory, some Leave campaigners advocated that voters should instead use pens to mark their ballot papers.
On polling day in Winchester an emergency call was made to police about "threatening behaviour" outside the polling station.
After questioning a woman who had been offering to lend her pen to voters, the police decided that no offence was being committed.
The final result was announced on Friday 24 June at The decision by the electorate was to "Leave the European Union" which won by a majority of 1,, votes 3.
Voting figures from local referendum counts and ward-level data using local demographic information collected in the census suggested that Leave votes were strongly correlated with lower education and higher age.
EU referendum vote by age and education, based on a YouGov survey. The referendum was criticised for not granting people younger than 18 years of age a vote.
Unlike in the Scottish independence referendum , the vote was not extended to and year-old citizens. Critics argued that these people would live with the consequences of the referendum for longer than those who were able to vote.
Some supporters for the inclusion of these young citizens considered this exclusion a violation of democratic principles and a major shortcoming of the referendum.
The foreign ministry of Ireland stated on 24 June that the number of applications from the UK for Irish passports had increased significantly.
More than a hundred racist abuse and hate crimes were reported in the immediate aftermath of the referendum, with many citing the plan to leave the European Union.
No more Polish vermin". The killing of a Polish national Arkadiusz Jozwik in Harlow, Essex in August  was widely speculated to be linked to the Leave result.
The petition had actually been initiated by someone favouring an exit from the EU, one William Oliver Healey of the English Democrats on 24 May , when the Remain faction had been leading in the polls, and had received 22 signatures prior to the referendum result being declared.
Healey also claimed that the petition had been "hijacked by the remain campaign". On 27 June , David Cameron's spokesperson stated that holding another vote on Britain's membership to the European Union was "not remotely on the cards".
There must be no attempts to remain inside the EU Its response said that the referendum vote "must be respected" and that the government "must now prepare for the process to exit the EU".
On 24 June, the Conservative Party leader and Prime Minister David Cameron announced that he would resign by October because the Leave campaign had been successful in the referendum.
The leadership election was scheduled for 9 September. The new leader would be in place before the autumn conference set to begin on 2 October. The Labour Party leader Jeremy Corbyn faced growing criticism from his party, which had supported remaining within the EU, for poor campaigning.
This led to a string of Labour MPs quickly resigning their roles in the party. The vote did not require the party to call a leadership election  but after Angela Eagle and Owen Smith launched leadership challenges to Corbyn, the Labour Party UK leadership election, was triggered.
Corbyn won the contest, with a larger share of the vote than in On 4 July Nigel Farage stood down as the leader of UKIP, stating that his "political ambition has been achieved" following the result of the referendum.
Scottish First Minister Nicola Sturgeon said on 24 June that it was "clear that the people of Scotland see their future as part of the European Union" and that Scotland had "spoken decisively" with a "strong, unequivocal" vote to remain in the European Union.
In reaction to the lack of a unified pro-EU voice following the referendum, the Liberal Democrats and others discussed the launch of a new centre-left political movement.
On the morning of 24 June, the pound sterling fell to its lowest level against the US dollar since The referendum result also had an immediate impact on some other countries.
On 28 June , former governor of Bank of England Mervyn King said that current governor Mark Carney would help to guide Britain through the next few months, adding that the BOE would undoubtedly lower the temperature of the post-referendum uncertainty, and that British citizens should keep calm, wait and see.
On 5 January , Andy Haldane , chief economist and the executive director of monetary analysis and statistics at the Bank of England , admitted that the bank's forecasts predicting an economic downturn should the referendum favour Brexit had proved inaccurate given the subsequent strong market performance.
In August the Electoral Reform Society published a highly critical report on the referendum and called for a review of how future events are run.
Looking ahead, the society called for an official organisation to highlight misleading claims and for Office of Communications Ofcom to define the role that broadcasters were expected to play.
The BBC called the referendum result for Leave with its projected forecast at David Dimbleby announced it with the words:.
The remark about was incorrect: On 9 May , Leave. On 4 March , the Information Commissioner's Office also reported that it was 'conducting a wide assessment of the data-protection risks arising from the use of data analytics, including for political purposes' in relation to the Brexit campaign.
It was specified that among the organisations to be investigated was Cambridge Analytica and its relationship with the Leave.
In the run-up to the Brexit referendum, Prime Minister David Cameron suggested that Russia "might be happy" with a positive Brexit vote, while the Remain campaign accused the Kremlin of secretly backing a "Leave" vote in the referendum.
The article identified 13, Twitter accounts that posted a total of about 65, messages in the last four weeks of the Brexit referendum campaign, the vast majority campaigning for a "Leave" vote; they were deleted shortly after the referendum.
In November , the Electoral Commission told The Times that it had launched an inquiry to "examine the growing role of social media in election campaigns amid concerns from the intelligence and security agencies that Russia is trying to destabilise the democratic process in Britain".
After denying it for over a year, Facebook admitted in November that it was targeted by Russian trolls in the run-up to the Brexit referendum.
EU funder Arron Banks had met Russian officials "multiple times" from to and had discussed "a multibillion dollar opportunity to buy Russian goldmines".
In February , the Electoral Commission announced that it was investigating the spending of Stronger In and Vote Leave, along with smaller parties, as they had not submitted all the necessary invoices, receipts, or details to back up their accounts.
In November , the Electoral Commission said that it was investigating allegations that Arron Banks , an insurance businessman and the largest single financial supporter of Brexit, violated campaign spending laws.
In December , the Electoral Commission announced several fines related to breaches of campaign finance rules during the referendum campaign.
In May , the Electoral Commission fined Leave. The Electoral Commission's director of political finance and regulation and legal counsel said that the "level of fine we have imposed has been constrained by the cap on the commission's fines".
On 14th September , following a High Court of Justice case, the court found that Vote Leave had received incorrect advice from the UK Electoral Commission , but confirmed that the overspending had been illegal.
Vote Leave subsequently said they would not have paid it without the advice. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Issues Endorsements Opinion polling Results Causes. Organisations advocating and campaigning for a referendum. People's Pledge Labour for a Referendum.
Bruges Group Campaign for an Independent Britain. The Movie In or Out. Calls for second vote. Organisations campaigning for a second vote via People's Vote.
Other organisations campaigning for a second vote. Opposition to Brexit in the United Kingdom. European Union Referendum Act Campaigning in the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, For the positions of backbench MPs and other politicians, see Endorsements in the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Opinion polling for the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum.
Issues in the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Results of the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, International reactions to the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum.
Aftermath of the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Conservative Party UK leadership election, Labour Party UK leadership election, Proposed second Scottish independence referendum.
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